It’s not an easy journey to become a DevOps Engineer !!
One of the main challenges or short comings of the new breed of DevOps engineer can be summarized with the saying ” Jack of all trades, master of none.”
This is very true for freshers or people from both operations or development team who are trying to get into the DevOps career seeing the current demand for DevOps Engineers in the IT Sector.
I am not trying to say that its very difficult for someone to become a DevOps engineer. It’s just that you need to do a lot of preparation, research and hard work before you can actually be recognized as a good DevOps Engineer.
Where to Begin
Where people usually fail in their DevOps journey is that they put more effort in learning the DevOps tools and frameworks rather than understanding DevOps principles or to be aware about what DevOps itself is. I have gone through hundreds of resumes of candidates interested in DevOps job roles in various organizations and most of the time they highlight their knowledge in the tools rather than DevOps itself.
Secondly, people think DevOps is all about automation, while this is true to a certain extend, they fail to realize that tools such as Hudson, Jenkins, scripting and Cron jobs existed long before DevOps became popular.
While interviewing candidates for DevOps roles, I usually ask them this simple question.
“ Explain to me what DevOps is without any technical jargon” , or “Imagine I am from a non technical background– Explain DevOps “
Only a very few candidates were able to give a satisfactory answer. Most of the time people end up saying it’s automation, continuous integration and deployment, DevOps is a framework, etc. Even though some of the answers are true -maybe in a practical aspect, most of them don’t define “What DevOps is”.
Only if you are able to understand DevOps from a holistic point of view starting from what was the reason for DevOps to come into existence, what is the need for DevOps, challenges that development and operations teams face, etc – then only you can start to make sense of DevOps and give an apt answer to such questions.
So to summarize the first point, Where to Begin ? – Understand DevOps Principles and Why DevOps is a culture before you start focusing on the tools for DevOps. One way to begin that journey is by reading the book/novel – The Phoenix Project. Even though it’s a work of fiction it helps in enabling the reader to gain more insight into the DevOps concepts in a very practical manner. Both in a business as well as technical point of view the reader will start to make sense of why both as an individual and an organization you need to adopt DevOps.
Get into the Developers Shoes
There’s no way around this and I am sure DevOps engineers who came from development background will agree to this. You need to be aware of what the developer is actually doing during the coding , development , testing and deployment process.
For people from operations, system administration background or freshers – I am not saying you need to learn development in depth or become an expert in development/programming. Rather, if you want to effectively implement the said DevOps practices and tools, you need to think like the developers, understand their requirements and give them the best solution.
Basic to intermediate knowledge in various programming languages and frameworks will help you in a long way. This is why many DevOps engineers who worked as developers for few years are very successful in their career.
So to summarize, understand what the developers do during the development process of the software. How they manage their versions of code, integrating the code into existing code base, resolving merge conflicts and how they are compiling and deploying them to the servers (even though Ops team handles this, developers also do play their part).
Once you have understood how things are done manually with no automation tools, then you can bring DevOps practices and tools more effectively into the picture.
Become an Operations Expert before you even THINK DevOps !!
I don’t know how much more I can put stress or make this point important for all aspiring DevOps Engineers. You need to be an expert in System Administration and Operations before you become skilled in DevOps. The IT world existed and ran successfully long time before DevOps was in the picture. And this was mainly due to superheroes named as Sysadmins and Ops guys. And these were a rare breed of engineers ( now getting rarer thanks to all the automation tools) who knew various scripting languages better than their mother tongue.
They had good expertise in system engineering where they managed Linux/Windows servers , setup Web Servers, deployed artifacts into them via FTP and SSH, managed n number of servers. And they knew Shell better than their wife/girl friend.Even before the dawn of DevOps they had expertise in building automated tasks ( via Scripts) to automate deployment, builds and monitoring the server and applications.Today there is an misconception that you don’t need expertise in managing these tools, Operating Systems and Scripts for becoming a DevOps engineer. It’s not true.
Unless you are good in Ops you aren’t gonna become an expert in DevOps. You need to become very familiar and have expertise in system engineering/administration before you embark you DevOps journey. You can begin this by,
- Learning Installation and Administration of various Linux Distros
- Start learning how to do scripting, learn bash, Perl, python, ruby etc ( be an expert of at-least one scripting language other than bash script)
- Know how to setup Web Servers, DNS Servers, load balancer’s – Apache, Nginx
- Learn how to setup proactive monitoring for the infrastructure and software
- Deep understanding of Networking Concepts – example – IP Gateways, TCP, CID, ARP, etc
- Understand how to do deployment of various artifacts manually to the servers
- Gain expertise in various RDBMS systems such as PostgreSQL
- Expertise in fileSystem management such as ext,ext4, NFS ext.
I know that the list looks pretty exhaustive. But trust me, it’s not. As you start to gain expertise in each of the above tools, frameworks, process and various technologies you’ll start to gain more knowledge in more related/dependent tools, Operating Systems, System Applications etc.
Next,learn how to manage your code
Configuration Management tools did exist long time before DevOps was popular. And one of the initial tools which were used for the same were SVN, ClearCase, Mercurial and Git for Version Control. Before I go further let me make this clear. You need to have good command in any Distributed Version Control System if you want to call yourself as a DevOps engineer. By Distributed VCS I mean tools such as Git and Mercurial ( I prefer Git – will elaborate in another article).
In a way it was the extensive use and features that tools such as Git offered which pushed forward the growth of DevOps tools. Gone are the days where Ops team use FTP, WinSCP,rsync etc to transfer your code, artifacts and data between your servers.
Not only are these tools efficient in version controlling your code but also helps the ops team to use these tools for allowing the code and artifacts to be sent, processed, deployed using other configuration tools such as Jenkins, Chef, Puppet, etc in a more secure, faster and easy to manage matter.
So to summarize – Become an expert in Git and learn basics of SVN, Mercurial and ClearCase ( for legacy users and migration requirements).
Let there be Jenkins ( or any other CI server for the matter )
As I had said earlier. Jenkins existed long time before DevOps became popular. But this tool was what gave the Ops team a huge success in enabling more stable build and release with its automation features. And for a long time Jenkins and Hudson ( Jenkins came from Hudson) ruled the Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Deployment (CD) realm. Presently tools such as TeamCity, Bamboo, GoCD and currently many tools are bloating the DevOps CI and CD domain. But personally with the massive community support and plugins available, I personally feel Jenkins still is the best user friendly and reliable CI and CD solution.
So what’s Jenkins ? It’s a Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery solution. What CI does is to merge the code from different developers into a single repository/project multiple times a day while continuously testing the code base to avoid downstream issues. Now CD is the next step further where you will make sure that all the merged code is ready for production.
For both Developers and Operations Jenkins was a bliss. It helped to automate the process as much as possible right from pushing the code from the developers system to deploying it into production.
So put some time and effort to gain expertise in Jenkins first. And as I said earlier, you can only use Jenkins in its full potential once you have gathered significant knowledge and expertise being a good operations/sysadmins engineer.
Again, I am not promoting Jenkins. But for new users, Jenkins is far more easier to learn and manage compared to the other CI/CD tool there on the market. (Please correct me if I am wrong)
Learn how to treat your “Infrastructure as Code” – Configuration Management
This is where you get you hands dirty with DevOps tools. And before you go any further, let me kindly remind you again that you need to gain good expertise in all the above mentioned tools and processes before you start learning these Configuration Management tools.
Unless you have good knowledge in the operations side ( Linux/Windows Server Administration, Managing Web servers, Networking) ,code version control ( git, svn) and CI and CD ( Jenkins, Bamboo etc) you won’t be able to truly understand where Configuration Management tools (hence forth called CM) fit in.
Too be honest it was the CM tools such as Puppet, Chef, Ansible, SaltStack etc which bought the attention to DevOps to the market.What CM tools provisioned was the ability to manage your infrastructure as code. Either all the manual work you had done before to install an OS, install and configure it’s dependencies, configuring the various network parameters and setting up access levels, copying and deploying the artifacts and managing the hardware resources – all this was done manually which always lead to chances for failure. And imagine doing this multiple times for many different servers. It was very difficult to keep track and have a dependable infrastructure this way. This was where these tools came to the rescue.
I would suggest beginners to start with Ansible and then learn Chef, Puppet and other CM tools depending on the requirements.
Proactive Monitoring in DevOps
Continuous Monitoring existed long time before DevOps came into the picture. But it started to gain attention and more tools came into market or proactivemonitoring of the environment recently. These tools monitor your logs and system resources and can identify potential bottlenecks and send alerts to prevent outages and performance issues.
Tools such as Nagios, senSU,logstash,New Relic, etc can help you get started.
Entering the world of Virtualization (now evolving to Containerization)
Virtualization was well known for more than a decade with tools such as VirtualBox, KVM, VMware etc. The difference DevOps brought here is the automation of setting up ,configuration and management of these virtual machines. This is possible via tools such as Vagrant, Packer etc.
Another domain which is of the highest demand which helped many organizations in pushing DevOps is containers. Containers are light weight self-contained execution environments. Compared to regular virtualization solutions, containers are more efficient to run and easier to manage. Moreover what containers have done is to encapsulate the software together with the right environment where it needs to be run with all the required dependencies. Either the developer can deploy his code into containers which already have the correct environment where the code can be tested and later sent to ops team to verify and deploy it – all in a matter of minutes or less compared to traditional methods.
Containers became popular due to Docker. There are also other tools to manage and scale containers such as Kubernetes, Mesos, etc. I would suggest to start your journey with Docker first before you get your hands on other tools to scale and manage containers.
Moving to Cloud
Together with the above said Configuration Management tools it was the demand for moving into cloud and managing the cloud infrastructure which further increased the demand of DevOps. Having in depth expertise with various cloud providers and their services is essential for a DevOps engineer. Having good knowledge and experience with Cloud providers such as AWS , Azure, Google Cloud etc is very much required. Also gaining certifications provided by these providers will add value for your DevOps expertise.
Well as I had said earlier, it’s indeed a long and difficult journey in gaining expertise in DevOps and it will be more difficult for freshers and people with no operations nor development experience. But once you have started working hands-on the said tools and process and start to work on live projects where DevOps is being implemented, you will be gaining good knowledge and will be able to build your expertise in it.
Even though its very important to become strong in DevOps principles and culture, in the end for a person or the team implementing or bringing DevOps into practice – you need both the right tools and the correct process to be working together very well.
PS : I know this article is not perfect or a foolproof guide to one’s path to become a successful DevOps Engineer. Feel free to correct me if have got anything wrong or need to add more points.