Big Data Hadoop
Big data means really a big data, it is a collection of large datasets that cannot be processed using traditional computing techniques. Big data is not merely a data, rather it has become a complete subject, which involves various tools, technqiues and frameworks. What Comes Under Big Data? Big data involves the data produced by different devices and applications. Given below are some of the fields that come under the umbrella of Big Data. Black Box Data : It is a component of helicopter, airplanes, and jets, etc. It captures voices of the flight crew, recordings of microphones and earphones, and the performance information of the aircraft. Social Media Data : Social media such as Facebook and Twitter hold information and the views posted by millions of people across the globe. Stock Exchange Data : The stock exchange data holds information about the ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ decisions made on a share of different companies made by the customers. Power Grid Data : The power grid data holds information consumed by a particular node with respect to a base station. Transport Data : Transport data includes model, capacity, distance and availability of a vehicle. Search Engine Data : Search engines retrieve lots of data from different databases. Thus Big Data includes huge volume, high velocity, and extensible variety of data. The data in it will be of three types. Structured data : Relational data. Semi Structured data : XML data. Unstructured data : Word, PDF, Text, Media Logs. Benefits of Big Data Big data is really critical to our life and its emerging as one of the most important technologies in modern world. Follow are just few benefits which are very much known to all of us: Using the information kept in the social network like Facebook, the marketing agencies are learning about the response for their campaigns, promotions, and other advertising mediums. Using the information in the social media like preferences and product perception of their consumers, product companies and retail organizations are planning their production. Using the data regarding the previous medical history of patients, hospitals are providing better and quick service. Big Data Technologies Big data technologies are important in providing more accurate analysis, which may lead to more concrete decision-making resulting in greater operational efficiencies, cost reductions, and reduced risks for the business. To harness the power of big data, you would require an infrastructure that can manage and process huge volumes of structured and unstructured data in realtime and can protect data privacy and security. There are various technologies in the market from different vendors including Amazon, IBM, Microsoft, etc., to handle big data. While looking into the technologies that handle big data, we examine the following two classes of technology: Operational Big Data This include systems like MongoDB that provide operational capabilities for real-time, interactive workloads where data is primarily captured and stored. NoSQL Big Data systems are designed to take advantage of new cloud computing architectures that have emerged over the past decade to allow massive computations to be run inexpensively and efficiently. This makes operational big data workloads much easier to manage, cheaper, and faster to implement. Some NoSQL systems can provide insights into patterns and trends based on real-time data with minimal coding and without the need for data scientists and additional infrastructure. Analytical Big Data This includes systems like Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) database systems and MapReduce that provide analytical capabilities for retrospective and complex analysis that may touch most or all of the data. MapReduce provides a new method of analyzing data that is complementary to the capabilities provided by SQL, and a system based on MapReduce that can be scaled up from single servers to thousands of high and low end machines. Hadoop is an open-source software framework for storing data and running applications on clusters of commodity hardware. It provides massive storage for any kind of data, enormous processing power and the ability to handle virtually limitless concurrent tasks or jobs.
Why is Hadoop important?
- Ability to store and process huge amounts of any kind of data, quickly. With data volumes and varieties constantly increasing, especially from social media and the Internet of Things (IoT), that’s a key consideration.
- Computing power. Hadoop’s distributed computing model processes big data fast. The more computing nodes you use, the more processing power you have.
- Fault tolerance. Data and application processing are protected against hardware failure. If a node goes down, jobs are automatically redirected to other nodes to make sure the distributed computing does not fail. Multiple copies of all data are stored automatically.
- Flexibility. Unlike traditional relational databases, you don’t have to preprocess data before storing it. You can store as much data as you want and decide how to use it later. That includes unstructured data like text, images and videos.
- Low cost. The open-source framework is free and uses commodity hardware to store large quantities of data.
- Scalability. You can easily grow your system to handle more data simply by adding nodes. Little administration is required.
What are the challenges of using Hadoop?
MapReduce programming is not a good match for all problems. It’s good for simple information requests and problems that can be divided into independent units, but it’s not efficient for iterative and interactive analytic tasks. MapReduce is file-intensive. Because the nodes don’t intercommunicate except through sorts and shuffles, iterative algorithms require multiple map-shuffle/sort-reduce phases to complete. This creates multiple files between MapReduce phases and is inefficient for advanced analytic computing.
There’s a widely acknowledged talent gap. It can be difficult to find entry-level programmers who have sufficient Java skills to be productive with MapReduce. That’s one reason distribution providers are racing to put relational (SQL) technology on top of Hadoop. It is much easier to find programmers with SQL skills than MapReduce skills. And, Hadoop administration seems part art and part science, requiring low-level knowledge of operating systems, hardware and Hadoop kernel settings.
Data security. Another challenge centers around the fragmented data security issues, though new tools and technologies are surfacing. The Kerberos authentication protocol is a great step toward making Hadoop environments secure.
Full-fledged data management and governance. Hadoop does not have easy-to-use, full-feature tools for data management, data cleansing, governance and metadata. Especially lacking are tools for data quality and standardization.